-Use math language in your daily dialogue to build your child’s math vocabulary. Use words such as more, greater, less, fewer, the same, equals, add, combined, subtract, take away, divide, separate, compare, etc.

-Turn daily activities into real life math problems. For example, “I have two crackers; I get three more. How many crackers are there now?” Or, “Here are four pieces of candy for you and your brother to share. How many pieces will each of you get?”

-Allow your child to solve the problem in his/her own way such as using real life objects (crackers or pieces of candy), paper and pencil (to draw a picture or record information), fingers (for counting), or mental math (solving the problem in his/her head).

-Have your child explain his/her thinking and problem solving strategies by asking questions such as, “How did you figure that out?” Or, “Tell me how you got that answer?” Listen to his/her reasoning to make sure it’s mathematically sound.

-Invite your child to solve the same problem in another way. It’s important for a child to realize there are multiple ways to solve one mathematical problem.

**Know number names and the count sequence****Counting to 100 by ones.**Practice counting from 1-100. If counting to 100 seems overwhelming, practice counting to 20 or 50. The more you practice the higher you’ll be able to count.

*Extension: Practice writing from 1-100.*

**Counting to 100 by tens.**Practice counting to 100 by tens. (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70. 80, 90,100)

*Extension: Write 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70. 80, 90, and 100. What do you notice is the same about the numbers? What is different?*

**Counting On.**Have an adult say a number such as 8. You count on 9, 10, 11 until you reach 20. Have an adult say another number such as 24. You count on until you reach 30. Continue playing with any number 1-100. Play until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Have an adult say two numbers such as 2 and 3. You start at 2 and then add on 3 (2,3,4,5)*

**Numbers At Home.**Look around your home for numbers. Look on the phone, clock, remote control, microwave, etc. Talk about the different uses for numbers.

*Extension: Take a notebook with you and write down the numbers you see.*

**Numbers Around the Neighborhood.**Take a walk around the neighborhood. Look for numbers on houses, street signs, license plates, etc. Name the numbers you see.

*Extension: Instead of naming the numbers you see such as one, five, seven (157), try reading the number as one hundred fifty seven.*

**Telephone Game.**Think of someone you would like to call. Have an adult tell you the phone number. You punch in the numbers and call him/her.

*Extension: Call someone else.*

__Number Recognition__

*Number Flashcards.**Use your number flashcards to complete one activity listed below. Note: If practicing flashcards 1-20 is overwhelming, practice flashcards 1-5, then keep adding flashcards until you’re up to 20.*

**Pointing Game.**Lay your number flashcards face up on the floor. Have an adult say a number and you point at the corresponding flashcard.

**See and Say.**Have an adult hold up a flashcard. Look at the flashcard and say the number on the flashcard.

**Musical Numbers.**Place flashcards face up in a large circle on the floor. Play music and hop around the cards. When the music stops, hop on a number, and say the number.

**What number is missing?**Put the flashcards in numerical order. Then have an adult remove one of the flashcards. You say which number is missing.

**Representing numbers.**Order your flashcards 1-10. Think of different representations for each number. Such as, “I have 0 sisters. I ate 1 sandwich for lunch. I have 2 feet. I’ve lost 3 teeth.”

*Extension: Think of number combinations for each number such as I have 2 dogs and 1 cat, that makes 3 animals. 2 kids and 2 parents equal 4 people in our family.*

**Flashcards and Counting.**You will need small objects for this activity. Place your flashcards in a pile upside down. Draw one flashcard. Count out the number of objects corresponding to your flashcard. For example, if your flashcard says 12, you count out 12 objects.

*Extension: Combined two sets. What do you get when you put a set of 3 together with a set of 4? (7)*

**Jump and Shout.**Have an adult hold up a flashcard. You say the number on the flashcard then jump while counting. For example: If an adult holds up a flashcard with the number 5. You will say, “5!” Then jump while counting, “1,2,3,4,5.”

**Numeral Writing****Sugar or Salt Writing.**Put some sugar or salt in the bottom of a pie pan. Have an adult say a number from 0-20. You write the number. Erase by shaking. Continue the activity practicing numbers from 0-20.

*Extension: Try more difficult numbers such as 72, 36, etc.*

**Listen and Write.**Have an adult clap slowly as you listen. When he/she stops, you write the number of claps on a piece of paper or in salt. For example, if you hear five claps, write the number 5. Keep playing until you have practiced writing all the number 0-20 in random order.

*Extension: While doing this activity, write the number and number word. (12 and twelve)*

**Practice Writing From 0-20.**In your best handwriting, write the numbers 0 –20. Have an adult watch as you write to make sure you are forming the number correctly. (There is a guide for correct formation on pg. 43)

*Extension: Practice writing to 100.*

**Objects and Numbers.**Have an adult place a number of objects ranging from 0-20 on the table. You count how many objects are on the table and write the number on a piece of paper. Continue the activity counting objects ranging from 0-20 and writing the number on a piece of paper until no longer fun.

*Extension: Record what you see pictorially. (Draw eight circles and write the number 8.)*

__Count to tell the number of objects__**Hopping Fun.**Have someone time 20 seconds on a clock as you hop. Count as you hop. How many times can you hop in 20 seconds? Now try clapping, turning, snapping, etc. Have an adult monitor as you count to make sure you are saying the right number names in the counting sequence.

*Extension: Record how many times you hopped, clapped, and turned on a piece of paper. Which activity could you do the fastest? Which activity did you do the slowest?*

**Snack Counting.**Choose a snack. Count the pretzels in your bowl, grapes in your hand, fruit snacks in your sack, etc. Have an adult monitor as you count to make sure you are saying the right number names in the counting sequence.

*Extension: Record your data. Draw a picture of how many pretzels you ate and write the number.*31

**Switch it, Change it, Rearrange it.**Have an adult place a number of objects ranging from 2-20 on a table. You count the objects and say how many. Have an adult rearrange the objects on the table. Now, how many are on the table? The goal is to recognize the number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they are counted. Keep playing with numbers ranging from 2-20 until no longer fun.

*Extension: Have an adult place a number of objects ranging from 1-5 on the table. You take a quick look. Can you say how many objects are on the table just by looking and not counting?*

**Adding One.**Have an adult put one object on the table. You count and say how many objects. (1) Then have an adult put one more object on the table. You say how many. (2) Have an adult continue adding one at a time up to ten. The goal is to understand each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger. (When you are counting the sequence is 5, 6 …5+1= 6)

*Extension: Write number sentences as you are adding on one more objects (0+1=1, 1+1=2, 2+1=3, etc).*

**Numbers Plus One.**Count out 5 objects. Then add one more. How many do you have now? Continue playing by having an adult say a random number from 0-9. You count out that many objects. Then add one more. How many objects are there now? The goal is to understand each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger. (When you are counting the sequence is 5, 6 …5+1= 6)

*Extension: Write number sentences as you add on one more object. (5+1=6, 2+1=3, etc).*

**Counting Objects in Shapes.**Have an adult place 7 object in a line. You count and say how many objects. Then have him/her place 12 objects in a square. You count and say how many objects. Continue having an adult arrange 4-20 objects in rectangles, circles, and arrays. (An array is objects placed in rows and columns. E.g., three rows with four objects in each row equaling twelve objects all together.) You count and say the number of objects.

*Extension: Can you arrange 9 objects in a line, rectangle, square, and array?*

**Scattered Counting.**Have an adult place 6 objects in a scattered configuration (design) on the table. You count and say how many objects. Continue having an adult arrange 1-10 objects in scattered configurations. You count and say how many objects.

*Extension: Instead of saying the number, write the number and number word on a piece of paper (8, eight).*32

**Counting Objects to 20.**Have an adult say a number from 0-20. You count out the given number of objects. Continue playing by having the adult say a number from 0-20 and you count out the objects.

*Extension: Have an adult say a number from 0-20. You count out the number of objects. Then have an adult say another number, you either add on more objects or take objects away to make the new number.*

**Compare numbers****Share and Compare.**Put a small handful of objects in your hand. Have an adult put a small handful of objects in his/her hand. Compare the objects in each hand and say who has less and who has more. (“I have less and you have more.”) Continue playing with different quantities in your hands.

*Extension: Stretch your thinking by saying, “I have 2 more than you, or you have three less than me.”*

**More or Less.**Put a handful of objects in a spot on a table. Put more objects in another spot on the table. Compare the two sets by using matching or counting strategies. Use words such as greater than, less than, or the same to compare the two sets. Keep playing until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Write a number sentence about your sets. Example: 9>2*

**Comparing Written Numerals.**Find numbered cards from an old card game or make a set of 40 cards numbered 1-10. Deal the cards to both players. Each player lays one card face up. Compare the numerals on the two cards. The highest card wins and that player takes both cards. If the cards are the same, players lay down another card until one is higher. When all the cards have been played, each player counts up his/her cards. The player with the majority of the cards wins!

*Extension: Play the same game, only this time the person with the least amount of cards at the end wins.*

**Less is more.**Think of things you’d rather have less of. For instance, it’s better to have less cavities and less time-outs.

*Extension: Make a list of things you’d rather have less of.*

**Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and understanding subtraction as taking apart and taking from****Math Stories.**Have an adult make up a math story. For example: “Let’s say you invite 3 friends to come over. 1 of your friends leaves and goes home. How many friends are left to play with?” (2) You solve the problem by using your fingers, mental math, drawings, etc. Explain to the adult how you came up with the answer. Keep making up addition and subtraction stories until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Record the story on paper by drawing a picture of your friends with one leaving, or writing a number sentence 3-1=2.*

**Solving Addition Word Problems.**Have an adult say an addition problem using numbers equaling 10 or under. For example, “What’s 3 plus 4?” (abstract word problem) or “If you had 3 cookies and I had 4 cookies. How many cookies would that be all together?” (concrete word problem) You solve the problem by using objects (put 3 beans on the table and then add 4 more beans), drawings (draw 3 circles and 4 circles), fingers (put up three fingers and 4 fingers), or mental math (solve the problem in your head). Keep solving addition problems until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Have an adult write out equations. You write in the answers. (3+4=7)*

**Solving Subtraction Word Problems.**Have an adult say a subtraction problem using numbers equaling 10 or under. For example: “What is 8 minus 4?” (abstract word problem) or “If you had 8 chicken nuggets and you eat, how many chicken nuggets would you have left?” (concrete word problem) You solve the problem by using objects (put 8 beans on the table and take 4 beans away), drawings (draw 8 circles then cross out 4 circles), fingers (put up 8 fingers then put 4 fingers down), or mental math (solve the problem in your head). Keep solving subtraction problems until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Have an adult write out equations. You write in the answers. (8-4=4)*

**Rolling Addition.**Find a dice. Roll the dice and put that number of objects in one set. Roll again and put that many in another set. Join the sets together and tell how many are all together. You can also solve the math problems by rolling two dice and counting the dots on the dice. Keep playing until it is no longer fun.

*Extension: Write an equation. (4+5=9)*

**Rolling Subtraction.**Find a dice. Place 6 objects in a set. Roll the dice and take that many objects away from the set. How many are left? Keep playing until it is no longer fun. You can also solve the math problems, by subtracting on your fingers.

*Extension: Write an equation. (6-2=4)*

**Multiple Representations of a Number.**Have an adult say a number from 1-10. Write down all the ways you can think of to represent that number. For example, to represent 5 you could write the numeral, write the word five, draw a picture of 5 objects, draw a picture of 3 kids with their 2 parents.

*Extension: Stretch your thinking to include more representations of five such as a nickel, 5 tally marks, a basketball team, 5 fingers, 2+3=5, and 6-1=5.*

**Decomposing Numbers.**Have an adult say a number from 1-10. You decompose (break apart) the number into two or more pairs. (6 can be broken down into 3 3, 4 2, 6 0, and 5 1) Record your findings with numbers (3 3 and 4 2), drawings (ooo + ooo), or equations (6=3+3). If you can not think of a strategy for decomposing numbers try this one. Draw 6 circles. Then draw a line between two of the circles. Count how many circles are to the right of the line and count how many circles are to the left of the line. Write down the two numbers. This is your first pair of numbers. Then draw 6 circles again and put the line in a different place. Count how many circles are to the right of the line and count how many circles are to the left of the line. Write down the two numbers. This is your second pair of numbers. Continue decomposing numbers until no longer fun.

*Extension: Think of numbers you can subtract to make 6. (10-4=6, 7-1=6, 8-2=6)*

**Making Ten.**Have an adult say a number from 1-9. You figure out what number you need to add to get 10. If an adult says 2, you would have to add 8 to get to 10. To solve the problem you can use objects (put 2 objects on the table and then add objects until you get to 10), drawings (draw 2 circles and then add circles until you get to 10), fingers (put up 10 fingers, put two fingers down, and count how many fingers are still up), or mental math (figure it out in your mind). When you solve the problem, tell an adult your answer. “2 plus 8 equals 10.” Continue with other numbers from 1-10.

*Extension: Have an adult write an algebraic equation 2+x=10. You solve the problem and then write the answer 2+8=10.*

**Hide the Pennies.**You will need 3 pennies for this activity. Have an adult put some of the pennies in each hand and close his/her fists so you can not see the pennies. You tap the hand you want opened first. Have an adult open the hand you tapped. Count the pennies in that hand. Now figure out how many pennies are in the other hand. Have an adult open his/her other hand and see if you are right. Practice all the number combinations of 3. Play again using 4 or 5 pennies. If you are having a hard time figuring out the answer mentally try using your fingers, drawing pictures, or using your own set of pennies.

*Extension: Explain your problem solving strategies. How did you know how many pennies were in the other hand?*

**Adding Quickly.**Have an adult say addition problem that equals no more than 5. (1+4, 2+2, 3+1, etc.) You solve the problem as fast as you can and say the answer. You can use objects, fingers, mental math, or drawings to solve the problems.

*Extension: Have an adult write down math equations and you write in the answers as fast as you can. Try higher numbers when ready.*

**Subtracting Quickly.**Have an adult say a subtraction problem that starts from 1-5. (5-1, 1-0, 4-2, etc.) You solve the problem as fast as you can and say the answer. You can use objects, fingers, mental math, or draw pictures to solve the problems.

*Extension: Have an adult write down math equations and you write in the answers as fast as you can. Try higher numbers when ready.*

**Working with numbers 11-19 to gain foundations for place value****Composing numbers from 11 to 19.**Have an adult draw a picture of a number from 11-19 broken down (decomposed) into tens and ones. You count the objects in the picture and write down (compose) the number. Example: An adult draws ten ones and three ones. You count the squares/stars and write 13.

Continue playing with other numbers from 11-19 until no longer fun.

*Extension: Compose higher numbers in the same way.*

**Decomposing numbers from 11 to 19.**Have an adult say a number from 11-19. You represent the number by showing the number broken down into tens and ones. (14 is ten ones and four ones.) Represent the number with an equation (14= 10+4) or a drawing. Continue playing with other numbers from 11-19 until no longer fun.

*Extension: Decompose higher numbers in the same way. (24 is 2 groups of ten ones and 4 ones*Represent the number with a drawing or equation.

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